Breast neoplasm is the most frequently diagnosed and the leading cause of cancer death in the vast majority of the countries. Breast cancer self-examination is a check-up of a woman does at home to look for changes or problems in the breast tissue. The benefit of early recognition is for early treatment that is more effective, higher long-term survival rates and better quality of life. The aim of this review was to determine the pooled prevalence of breast cancer self-examination practice and identify its associated factors among Ethiopian women.
Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, web of science, and Cochrane Library were used for search of articles. This review includes thirty four articles conducted in Ethiopia between 2011 and 2020. The review contains 14,908 women to determine the ever pooled prevalence of breast cancer self-examination practice. Health workers and students made up 28.35% of the total participants. Data were extracted using a standardized data extraction format prepared in Microsoft Excel and analyzed with Stata 14. To assess heterogeneity I 2 test were used. A random effect meta-analysis model was used to estimate the pooled breast cancer self-examination (BCSE) practice of Ethiopian women. Moreover associated factors were also assessed.
In Ethiopian women, the overall ever and regular pooled breast cancer self-examination practice was 36% (95% CI: 28, 43) and 16% (95% CI: 28, 43) respectively. The ever pooled prevalence for health workers or students was 53% (95% CI: 41, 65), whereas for other participants it was 25% (95% CI: 19, 30). Good knowledge about breast self-examination (AOR: 3.69: 95% CI: 2.70, 5.05), positive attitude towards BCSE (AOR: 2.72: 95% CI: 1.74, 4.24), Getting to know people with breast cancer(AOR: 2.77: 95% CI: 1.51, 5.09), family history of breast cancer (AOR: 2.49: 95% CI: 1.60, 3.88) and personal history of breast cancer (AOR: 2.26: 95% CI: 1.70, 3.01) were associated factors to BCSE practice among Ethiopian women. All of the studies included in this review were conducted in a cross-sectional design was a limitation of this review and meta-analysis.
This review and meta-analysis showed the ever and regular pooled prevalence of BCSE among Ethiopian women. More than one third of Ethiopian women ever practiced BCSE. We recommend that awareness creation should be perform in order to tackle the risk of breast cancer.
- • The practice of breast cancer self-examination was studied in Ethiopia, but the findings revealed a high degree of variability (from 6.5% to 79.9%).
- • This review refutes this variability and provides consolidated results in Ethiopian women’s BCSE practice.
- • Overall, 36% (95% CI: 28, 43) and 16 % (95 % CI: 28, 43) of Ethiopian women had ever and regular breast cancer self-examinations, respectively.
- • Determine the elements that contribute to Ethiopia’s low BCSE practice.
Neoplasm is a group of diseases causing cells in the body to change and proliferate beyond of control, and form a lump or mass called a tumor, and are named after the part of the body where the tumor originates . In 2018, there were an estimated 18.1 million new cases of cancer and 9.6 million deaths due to cancer, from this 11.6% (about 2.1 million new cases and nearly to 1.2 mortality were owed female breast neoplasm worldwide . For many years, breast cancer like other types of cancer was considered a disease of wealthy countries, but now a days it is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in the vast majority of the countries and is also the leading cause of cancer death in over 100 countries . Even though, breast neoplasm incidence rates are higher in developed countries, the mortality rate show less variability throughout the world . Breast neoplasm mortality can be reduced if cases are detected and treated early. One method of early detection is breast self-examination. It is a check-up of a woman does at home to look for changes or problems in the breast tissue. The purpose of breast self-examination is for a woman to learn the topography of her breast, know how her breasts normally feel and be able to identify changes in the breast should they occur in the future . The goal of early detection is to identify breast cancer early, before it has developed, grown or spread. Treatment of cancer found at an early stage is less aggressive, less expensive and more effective, with higher long-term survival rates and better quality of life . A Systemic review conducted in sub-Saharan Africa revealed that Women with breast cancer in SSA are younger compared with high-income countries. Breast cancer screening and early detection before symptoms onset are poor in low income countries. Ethiopia like much sub-Saharan Africa, does not have breast cancer screening and diagnosis is at symptomatic stages, thus the role of BSE and CBE become relevant and realistic options in this setting . Although there is insufficient evidence that breast cancer self-examination is effective in reducing breast cancer mortality, in countries with limited resources and infrastructure, such as Ethiopia, BSE is the last recourse . In different parts of Ethiopia, breast cancer self-examination practice were studied, however the result of the studies showed high variability which ranged from 6.5% to the 79.9% The variability of the findings were not only the practice but also factors related to the practice were inconsistent with different studies. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to argue this variability by pooling varies inconsistent results. The conclusions of this study will have a contribution to policy makers and program planners in the design of appropriate interventions. Additionally, the study will have an importance for clinicians and future researchers in related topics.