The visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a new marker of adipose dysfunction and related with cardiometabolic risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of VAI with arterial stiffness in elderly Chinese population.
A total of 1,707 elderly individuals over 60 years of age were recruited for this cross-sectional study. We measured body composition, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and lipid parameters. The arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and defined as baPWV ≥ 1400 cm/s. VAI was calculated based on body mass index, waist circumference, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between VAI and baPWV.
There were significant differences in VAI tertiles between low-baPWV and high-baPWV group ( p = 0.008). Univariate analysis demonstrated that age, history of hypertension, SBP, DBP, total cholesterol, fasting glucose, the higher VAI tertiles were correlated with the existence of high-baPWV ( p < 0.05). Participants in the higher VAI tertiles had higher OR (1.0 ≤ VAI < 1.74: OR= 2.89, 95% CI [1.44, 5.80]; VAI ≥ 1.75: OR = 4.23, 95% CI [1.45, 12.37], p for trend: 0.004) comparing with the lowest VAI tertile. Non-linear relationship was detected between VAI and baPWV. VAI was positively correlated with baPWV when VAI < 2.10.
This study demonstrates that VAI is independently associated with the risk of arterial stiffness in elderly population.
Obesity is related with higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
, Visceral adiposity can produce many compounds that have autocrine, paracrine and endocrine activities, which is associated with abnormal lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. Although the link between visceral adiposity and cardiovascular disease has been extensively studied, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Some studies have showed that visceral adiposity is closely related to arterial stiffness and CVD. Estimating the visceral adiposity function with waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) are used to assess CVD risk. ,
However, these indicators cannot distinguish muscle, subcutaneous and visceral fat masses, or reflect fat distribution.
In recent years, the visceral adiposity index (VAI) has been developed to identify visceral adiposity dysfunction, which considers WC, BMI, triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C).
VAI was discovered as an independent determinant of visceral adiposity, which can replace visceral CT scanning. Some studies have shown that VAI is associated with cardiometabolic risk. , , Amato et al. reported that the VAI was better than BMI and WC in the assessment of cardiovascular risk associated with visceral obesity. Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. , There are various methods to measure arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity is a useful and noninvasive tool. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is associated with vascular damage, which can be used as a surrogate of cardiovascular risk. BaPWV increases with age and is increasingly recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases associated with aging. Several studies showed a link between obesity parameters and arterial stiffness in older adults. Ageing is associated with an increase in obesity. Obesity, adiposity and visceral adiposity are related to baPWV and play important role to influence vascular aging. , However, there is limited data of the relationship between VAI and arterial stiffness in elderly population. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between VAI and arterial stiffness (assessed by baPWV) in a cohort of elderly Chinese individuals.